The GMAT likes to test idioms involving comparisons, with words such as "greater," "less," "increase," and so on. Here we have the word "increase." As always, read around the clause between commas, leaving us with: "...a study performed by the laboratory would increase more than 10 percent as compared with...." An increase is a change; a change must be "from" or "to" a previous or current level. The meaning of the sentence is that future costs will be 10% more than this year's, so we're looking for a choice with the word "from." (B) is the only choice that contains the word "from."
Choices (A) and (C) can be eliminated because of the wrong word instead of "from." "As compared with" and "above" cannot be used with "increase." (D) and (E) each contain a modifier error. The researchers are not what is being "compared to similar studies this year." To be correct, "future studies" (or something similar) would have to follow the comma. Choice (B) is correct.